All mutton and ham fat should be melted and strained into a large stone pot. The practice of throwing lumps of fat into a pot, and waiting till there are several pounds before trying them out, is a disgusting one, as often such a receptacle is alive with maggots. Try out the fat, and strain as carefully as you would lard or beef drippings, and it is then always ready for use. If concentrated lye or potash, which comes in little tins, is used, directions will be found on the tins. Otherwise allow a pound of stone potash to every pound of grease. Twelve pounds of each will make a barrel of soft soap.
Crack the potash in small pieces. Put in a large kettle with two gallons of water, and boil till dissolved. Then add the grease, and, when melted, pour all into a tight barrel. Fill it up with boiling water, and for a week, stir daily for five or ten minutes. It will gradually become like jelly.
TO KEEP EGGS.
Be sure that the eggs are fresh. Place them points down in a stone jar or tight firkin, and pour over them the following brine, which is enough for a hundred and fifty:—
One pint of slacked lime, one pint of salt, two ounces of cream of tartar, and four gallons of water. Boil all together for ten minutes; skim, and, when cold, pour it over the eggs. They can also be kept in salt tightly packed, but not as well.
TO MAKE HARD WATER SOFT.
Dissolve in one gallon of boiling water a pound and a quarter of washing soda, and a quarter of a pound of borax. In washing clothes allow quarter of a cup of this to every gallon of water.
TO TAKE OUT FRUIT-STAINS.
Stretch the stained part tightly over a bowl, and pour on boiling water till it is free from spot.
TO TAKE OUT INK-SPOTS.
Ink spilled upon carpets or on woolen table-covers can be taken out, if washed at once in cold water. Change the water often, and continue till the stain is gone.
Four ounces of salt; one of black pepper; one each of thyme, sweet marjoram, and summer savory; half an ounce each of clove, allspice, and mace; quarter of an ounce of cayenne pepper; one ounce of celery salt. Mix all together; sift three times, and keep closely covered. Half an ounce will flavor a stuffing for roast meat; and a tablespoonful is nice in many soups and stews.
TO WASH GREASY TIN AND IRON.
Pour a few drops of ammonia into every greasy roasting-pan, first half-filling with warm water. A bottle of ammonia should always stand near the sink for such uses. Never allow dirty pots or pans to stand and dry; for it doubles the labor of washing. Pour in water, and use ammonia, and the work is half done.
TO CLEAN BRASS AND COPPER.
Scrape a little rotten-stone fine, and make into a paste with sweet oil. Rub on with a piece of flannel; let it dry, and polish with a chamois-skin. Copper is cleaned either with vinegar and salt mixed in equal parts, or with oxalic acid. The latter is a deadly poison, and must be treated accordingly.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
As many families have no scales for weighing, a table of measures is given which can be used instead. Weighing is always best, but not always convenient. The cup used is the ordinary coffee or kitchen cup, holding half a pint. A set of tin measures, from a gill up to a quart, is very useful in all cooking operations.
One pint of granulated sugar is one pound.
Two cups of butter packed are one pound.
Ten eggs are one pound.
Five cupfuls of sifted flour are one pound.
A wine-glassful is half a gill.
Eight even tablespoonfuls are a gill.
Four even saltspoonfuls make a teaspoonful.
A saltspoonful is a good measure of salt for all custards, puddings, blancmanges, &c.
One teaspoonful of soda to a quart of flour.
Two teaspoonfuls of soda to one of cream of tartar.
The teaspoonful given in all these receipts is just rounded full, not heaped.
Two heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder to one quart of flour.
One cup of sweet or sour milk as wetting for one quart of flour.
TIME TABLE FOR ROASTED MEATS.
Beef, from six to eight pounds, one hour and a half, or twelve minutes to the pound.
Mutton, ten minutes to the pound for rare; fifteen for well-done.
Lamb, a very little less according to age and size of roast.
Veal, twenty minutes to a pound.
Pork, half an hour to a pound.
Turkey of eight or ten pounds weight, not less than three hours.
Goose of seven or eight pounds, two hours.
Chickens, from an hour to an hour and a half.
Game duck, from thirty to forty minutes.
Partridges, grouse, &c., half an hour.
Pigeons, half an hour.
Small birds, twenty minutes.
TIME TABLE FOR BOILED MEATS.
Beef à la mode, eight pounds, four hours.
Corned beef, eight pounds, four hours.
Corned or smoked tongue, eight pounds, four hours.
Ham, eight or ten pounds, five hours.
Mutton, twenty minutes to a pound.
Veal, half an hour to a pound.
Turkey, ten pounds, three hours.
Chickens, one hour and a half.
Old fowls, two or three hours.
TIME TABLE FOR FISH.
Halibut and salmon, fifteen minutes to a pound.
Blue-fish, bass, &c., ten minutes to a pound.
Fresh cod, six minutes to a pound.
Baked halibut, twelve minutes to a pound.
Baked blue-fish, &c., ten minutes to a pound.
Trout, pickerel, &c., eight minutes to a pound.
TIME TABLE FOR VEGETABLES.
Half an hour,—Pease, potatoes, asparagus, rice, corn, summer squash, canned tomatoes, macaroni.
Three-quarters of an hour,—Young beets, young turnips, young carrots and parsnips, baked potatoes (sweet and Irish), boiled sweet potatoes, onions, canned corn, tomatoes.
Two hours,—Winter carrots, parsnips, turnips, cabbage, and onions.
Three to eight hours,—Old beets.
TIME TABLE FOR BREAD, CAKES, ETC.
Bread,—large loaves, an hour; small loaves, from half to three-quarters of an hour.
Biscuits and rolls, in from fifteen to twenty minutes.
Brown bread, steamed, three hours.
Loaves of sponge cake, forty-five minutes; if thin, about thirty.
Loaves of richer cake, from forty-five minutes to an hour.
Fruit cake, about two hours, if in two or three pound loaves.
Small thin cakes and cookies, from ten to fifteen minutes. Watch carefully.
Baked puddings, rice, &c., one hour.
Boiled puddings, three hours.
Custards to be watched and tested after the first fifteen minutes.
Batter puddings baked, forty-five minutes.
Pie-crust, about half an hour.
For this purpose, use either the knuckle or any odds and ends remaining. Cut off all dark or hard bits, and see that at least a quarter of the amount is fat. Chop as finely as possible, reducing it almost to a paste. For a pint-bowl of this, make a dressing as follows:—
One even tablespoonful of sugar; one even teaspoonful of ground mustard; one saltspoonful of Cayenne pepper; one teacupful of good vinegar. Mix the sugar, mustard, and pepper thoroughly, and add the vinegar little by little. Stir it into the chopped ham, and pack it in small molds, if it is to be served as a lunch or supper relish, turning out upon a small platter and garnishing with parsley.
For sandwiches, cut the bread very thin; butter lightly, and spread with about a teaspoonful of the deviled ham. The root of a boiled tongue can be prepared in the same way. If it is to be kept some time, pack in little jars, and pour melted butter over the top.
This receipt should have had place under "Meats," but was overlooked.
One boiler for clothes, holding eight or ten gallons.—Two dish-pans,—one large, one medium-sized.—One two-quart covered tin pail.—One four-quart covered tin pail.—Two thick tin four-quart saucepans.—Two two-quart saucepans.—Four measures, from one gill to a quart, and broad and low, rather than high.—Three tin scoops of different sizes for flour, sugar, &c.—Two pint and two half-pint molds for jellies.—Two quart molds.—One skimmer with long handle.—One large and one small dipper.—Four bread-pans, 10x4x4.—Three jelly-cake tins.—Six pie-plates.—Two long biscuit-tins.—One coffee-pot.—One colander.—One large grater.—One nutmeg-grater.—Two wire sieves; one ten inches across, the other four, and with tin sides.—One flour-sifter.—One fine jelly-strainer.—One frying-basket.—One Dover egg-beater.—One wire egg-beater.—One apple-corer.—One pancake-turner.—One set of spice-boxes, or a spice-caster.—One pepper-box.—One flour-dredger.—One sugar-dredger.—One biscuit-cutter.—One potato-cutter.—A dozen muffin-rings.—Small tins for little cakes.—One muffin-pan.—One double milk-boiler, the inside boiler holding two quarts.—One fish-boiler, which can also be used for hams.—One deep bread-pan; a dish-pan is good, but must be kept for this.—One steamer.—One pudding-boiler.—One cake-box.—Six teaspoons.
One bread-board.—One rolling-pin.—One meat-board.—One wash-board.—One lemon-squeezer.—One potato-masher.—Two large spoons.—One small one.—Nest of wooden boxes for rice, tapioca, &c.—Wooden pails for graham and corn meal.—Chopping-tray.—Water-pail.—Scrubbing-pail.—Wooden cover for flour-barrel.—One board for cutting bread.—One partitioned knife-box.
One pair of scales.—One two-gallon pot with steamer to fit.—One three-gallon soup-pot with close-fitting cover.—One three-gallon porcelain-lined kettle, to be kept only for preserving.—One four or six quart one, for apple sauce, &c.—One tea-kettle.—One large and one small frying-pan.—Two Russia or sheet iron dripping-pans; one large enough for a large turkey.—Two gem-pans with deep cups.—Two long-handled spoons.—Two spoons with shorter handles.—One large meat-fork.—One meat-saw.—One cleaver.—One griddle.—One wire broiler.—One toaster.—One waffle-iron.—One can-opener.—Three pairs of common knives and forks.—One small Scotch or frying kettle.—One chopping-knife.—One meat-knife.—One bread-knife.—One set of skewers.—Trussing-needles.
EARTHEN AND STONE WARE.
Two large mixing-bowls, holding eight or ten quarts each.—One eight-quart lip-bowl for cake.—Half a dozen quart bowls.—Half a dozen pint bowls.—Three or four deep plates for putting away cold food.—Six baking-dishes of different sizes, round or oval.—Two quart blancmange-molds.—Two or three pitchers.—Two stone crocks, holding a gallon each.—Two, holding two quarts each.—One bean-pot for baked beans.—One dozen Mason's jars for holding yeast, and many things used in a store closet.—Stone jugs for vinegar and molasses.—Two or three large covered stone jars for pickles.—One deep one for bread.—One earthen teapot.—One dozen pop-over cups.—One dozen custard-cups.—Measuring-cup.
Scrubbing and blacking brushes.—Soap-dish.—Knife-board.—Vegetable-cutters.—Pastry-brush.—Egg-basket. —Market-basket.—Broom.—Brush.—Dust-pan.—Floor and sink cloths.—Whisk-broom.—Four roller-towels.—Twelve dish-towels.—Dishes enough for setting servants' table, heavy stone-china being best.
THE EASIEST WAY IN HOUSEKEEPING AND COOKING.
Adapted to Domestic Use or Study in Classes